Exercise is physical activity to improve and maintain the general health and physical fitness of the body. Exercise can be done to aid growth, increase strength, prevent aging, improve muscles and cardiovascular system, improve athletic skills, lose or maintain weight, improve health, or simply for pleasure.

To improve health, the recommended amount of exercise may differ depending on the purpose, the type of exercise, and the age of the person. Even a small amount of exercise is healthier than no exercise at all.


Physical exercises can be classified as aerobic, anaerobic and flexibility exercises depending on their overall effects on the human body.

Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than at rest. The purpose of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance. Examples of aerobic exercise are running, cycling, swimming, brisk walking, jumping rope, rowing, dancing, playing tennis, continuous training, and long-distance running.

Anaerobic exercise includes strength and resistance training. Anaerobic exercise increases the muscle mass and strengthens the muscles of the person; It can also improve bone density, balance and coordination. Examples of strength exercises are push-ups, pull-ups, lunges, squats, bench presses. Anaerobic exercise also includes weight training, functional training, eccentric training, interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training that increases short-term muscle strength.

Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen the muscles. Activities such as stretching and relaxing help increase joint flexibility and keep muscles flexible. The goal of flexibility exercises is to reduce the likelihood of injury by improving range of motion.

Positive and negative effects

Positive effects of exercise:

  • Allows easier control of weight
  • Fights health problems and diseases
  • Improves mood
  • Increases energy
  • Promotes better sleep
  • Improves sex life
  • It can be fun and social

Negative effects of excessive exercise:

  • Poor performance
  • Decrease in energy
  • Poor mental health
  • Insomnia
  • Joint problems
  • Heart problems
  • Aches and pains

Before starting a new exercise program, you should definitely consult your doctor if you have not exercised for a long time, if you have chronic health problems such as heart disease, diabetes or arthritis.



  1. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/exercise
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exercise
  3. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/exercise/art-20048389
  4. Femina, F., Style, C., To, H., News, F., expert, A., & 2020, F. et al. (2021). 10 scary side effects of over exercising. Retrieved 6 December 2021, from https://www.femina.in/wellness/fitness/10-scary-side-effects-of-over-exercising-54707-4.html 

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