Myocardial Infarction (MI) can be described as simply as result of insufficient oxygen which causes irreversible damage to the heart muscle. Diastolic and systolic function and tend to arrhythmias. It can be divided into three categories:

  • Unstable angina 
  • Non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI)
  • ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI)

Signs / Symptoms

What's common signs of myocardial infarction (MI)?

  • Chest pain, usually described as crushing, squeezing, pressing, heavy, or occasionally, stabbing or burning in the center of the chest or just below the center of the rib cage
    • It can spread to the arms, abdomen, neck, lower jaw, or neck.
  • Lightheadedness
  • Anxiety
  • Cough
  • Choking sensation
  • Diaphoresis
  • Wheezing
  • Irregular heart rate
  • Sudden weakness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Shortness of breath

Common causes

What's common causes of myocardial infarction (MI)?

It is based on decreased coronary blood flow. Some of the following can be as risk factors:

Age: For men 45 or older, for women 55 or older
Tobacco: Smoking or long-term exposure to smoke
High blood pressure: Over time arteries can be damaged.
High blood cholesterol or triglyceride levels: High bad cholesterol (LDL) levels increase the risk of narrowing arteries. A high level of triglycerides increases risk of a heart attack. However, high good cholesterol (HDL) level may lower risk.
Obesity: it is linked with high bad cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, high blood pressure and diabetes. Losing just 10% of body weight can lower this risk.
Diabetes: Not producing enough insulin or not responding to insulin properly causes high blood sugar levels and increases risk of a heart attack.
Metabolic syndrome: İt is associated with obesity, high blood pressure and high blood sugar. Having metabolic syndrome makes person to have a heart problem risk twice.
Family history of heart attacks: Anyone who has a first degree relative that early heart attacks (by age 55 for males and by age 65 for females), might be at increased risk.
Lack of physical activity: Stayin sedentary contribute to have high blood cholesterol levels and obesity. If person exercise regularly will have better heart health.
Stress: Some people might respond to stress in ways that can increase risk of a heart attack.
Illicit drug use: Stimulant drugs can trigger a spasm in coronary arteries which can cause a heart attack.
A history of preeclampsia: Increases the lifetime risk of heart disease by causing high blood pressure during pregnancy.
An autoimmune condition: Such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus can increase risk of a heart attack.

Departments & Emergency

If person have chest pain like in described in signs/symptoms it is recommended to go an Emergency or call for an Emergency help.


  • An electrocardiogram (EKG) 
  • A physical examination, with special attention to heart and blood pressure
  • Blood tests for serum cardiac markers
  • Coronary catheterization (angiogram)
  • If needed an echocardiogram and imaging tests will be helpful. 


There is nothing to cure at home. Going to a hospital is the best thing to do.


Can myocardial infarction be cured? 

Even have been treated for a prior heart attack a heart attack can happen again. It is still important to lead a healthy lifestyle

Can you survive a heart attack without going to the hospital?

There is no fast way to stop a heart attack without seeking emergency medical treatment at a hospital. Fast treatment advices that can be found online are not effective and could be dangerous since they can delay emergency medical treatment.


Resources: Mayo Clinic, Cleveland Clinic, Harvard Health Publishing, NCBI

  • Nascimento BR, Brant LCC, Marino BCA, Passaglia LG, Ribeiro ALP. Implementing myocardial infarction systems of care in low/middle-income countries. Heart. 2019 Jan;105(1):20-26.
  • Barberi C, van den Hondel KE. The use of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) in the postmortem diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death: A systematic review. Forensic Sci Int. 2018 Nov; 292:27-380.
  • Alaour B, Liew F, Kaier TE. Cardiac Troponin – diagnostic problems and impact on cardiovascular disease. Ann Med. 2018 Dec;50(8):655-665. 

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